python的入门的几个例子(中)

接着上一个http://jpuyy.com/2012/12/python-simple-programs-a.html

例11.三引号,while循环–Triple-quoted strings, while loop

REFRAIN = '''
%d bottles of beer on the wall,
%d bottles of beer,
take one down, pass it around,
%d bottles of beer on the wall!
'''
bottles_of_beer = 99
while bottles_of_beer > 1:
    print REFRAIN % (bottles_of_beer, bottles_of_beer,
        bottles_of_beer - 1)
    bottles_of_beer -= 1

例12.python中的类–Classes

class BankAccount(object):
    def __init__(self, initial_balance=0):
        self.balance = initial_balance
    def deposit(self, amount):
        self.balance += amount
    def withdraw(self, amount):
        self.balance -= amount
    def overdrawn(self):
        return self.balance < 0
my_account = BankAccount(15)
my_account.withdraw(5)
print my_account.balance

执行结果是10

例13.使用unittest模块进行单元测试–Unit test with unittest

import unittest
def median(pool):
    copy = sorted(pool)
    size = len(copy)
    if size % 2 == 1:
        return copy[(size - 1) / 2]
    else:
        return (copy[size/2 - 1] + copy[size/2]) / 2
class TestMedian(unittest.TestCase):
    def testMedian(self):
        self.failUnlessEqual(median([2, 9, 9, 7, 9, 2, 4, 5, 8]), 7)
if __name__ == '__main__':
    unittest.main()

执行过程:将中间值计算出来与7比较,如果相等,则通过测试。

例14.基于Doctest的测试–Doctest-based testing

def median(pool):
    '''Statistical median to demonstrate doctest.
    >>> median([2, 9, 9, 7, 9, 2, 4, 5, 8])
    7
    '''
    copy = sorted(pool)
    size = len(copy)
    if size % 2 == 1:
        return copy[(size - 1) / 2]
    else:
        return (copy[size/2 - 1] + copy[size/2]) / 2
if __name__ == '__main__':
    import doctest
    doctest.testmod()

执行结果:没有输出任何东西,说明中间值是7

例15.使用itertools模块

from itertools import groupby
lines = '''
This is the
first paragraph.

This is the second.
'''.splitlines()
# Use itertools.groupby and bool to return groups of
# consecutive lines that either have content or don't.
for has_chars, frags in groupby(lines, bool):
    if has_chars:
        print ' '.join(frags)
# PRINTS:
# This is the first paragraph.
# This is the second.

例16.csv模块,元组拆分,内置函数cmp() — csv module, tuple unpacking, cmp() built-in

import csv

# write stocks data as comma-separated values
writer = csv.writer(open('stocks.csv', 'wb', buffering=0))
writer.writerows([
    ('GOOG', 'Google, Inc.', 505.24, 0.47, 0.09),
    ('YHOO', 'Yahoo! Inc.', 27.38, 0.33, 1.22),
    ('CNET', 'CNET Networks, Inc.', 8.62, -0.13, -1.49)
])

# read stocks data, print status messages
stocks = csv.reader(open('stocks.csv', 'rb'))
status_labels = {-1: 'down', 0: 'unchanged', 1: 'up'}
for ticker, name, price, change, pct in stocks:
    status = status_labels[cmp(float(change), 0.0)]
    print '%s is %s (%s%%)' % (name, status, pct)

例18. 八皇后问题,递归–8-Queens Problem (recursion)

BOARD_SIZE = 8

def under_attack(col, queens):
    left = right = col

    for r, c in reversed(queens):
        left, right = left - 1, right + 1

        if c in (left, col, right):
            return True
    return False

def solve(n):
    if n == 0:
        return [[]]

    smaller_solutions = solve(n - 1)

    return [solution+[(n,i+1)]
        for i in xrange(BOARD_SIZE)
            for solution in smaller_solutions
                if not under_attack(i+1, solution)]
for answer in solve(BOARD_SIZE):
    print answer

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